Rules for Plurals

Singular means one.
Plural means more than one.


  1. Most nouns are made plural by adding s:

 More than one boy  = boys

More than one girl = girls

More than one hat = hats


  1. If the word ends in x or s, sh or ch, we add es:

 More than one box = boxes

More than one bus = buses

More than one bush = bushes

More than one coach = coaches

Others: trenches, brushes, dresses, etc


  1. If a noun ending in y is preceded by a consonant, change the y to i and add es: e.g., sky- skies, story – stories, city – cities, family – families.


  1. For words ending in vowel + y add s: e.g., valley – valleys, key – keys, etc




  1. Some words change to make a plural:


More than one mouse = mice

More than one man = men
More than one woman = women
More than one child = children
More than one tooth = teeth.


  1. Some nouns that end in f, ff or fe are made plural by changing the f to v and adding es:

e.g., leaf – leaves, knife – knives, shelf – shelves, half – halves, life – lives.


  1. If a noun ending in o is preceded by a consonant, an es is often added: e.g., dingo – dingoes, cargoes, potatoes, tomatoes


  1. Some nouns have the same form for singular and plural:

e.g., sheep, scissors, ice, offspring, gold,